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After defeat of the Swedish fortress the Nienschanz built at a confluence in Neva the rivers of Okhta (opposite to that place where Smolny is nowadays located), Peter I on May, 16th 1703 has put a new fortress more close to the sea, on the Zayachiy (hare) island (750 m in length, 360 width), separated from Birch (nowadays Petrograd) islands protowhich (nowadays Kronverksky passage).

From here it was easy to supervise the basic sleeves of the river — the Big — both Small Neva and Big Nevku. An earthen fortress in the form of the extended hexagon with bastions and curtains built under the drawing Peter I, made on the newest then fortification to system of French engineer S.Vobana. In one and a half month a fortress have prepared for arms.

on May, 30th 1706 on a former contour the architect the House. Trezzini has started — to build the brick fortress which walls have soon risen over Neva on 12 m. Supervision over fortress building Peter I has assigned — to the associates which names named bastions: southern, on Neva — Naryshkinsky (with 1725 — Ekaterina`s), southwest — Trubetsky, then Zotov, Golovkin (with 1730 Anninsky­), Menshikov (with 1729 — Petrovsky). The Southeast bastion Gosudarev carried the name. On east and western extremities of island — for cover of walls with collars have erected the stone ravelins separated — then from a fortress by ditches with water. Supervised over works engineer X. A. Minih. Against northern front of a fortress, on other coast of a channel, have built Kronverk in the form of zigzag ditches and shaft (fragments have remained).

In 17701780 th of a wall the fortresses turned to Neva, have revetted with a granite that has been connected with the general representative town-planning — works in a city. Then have radically reconstructed the — Neva gate (N.A.Lvov, 17841787) and have created granite — landing stage (17741775), named later (1860) Commandant`s­.

in XVIII century the fortress was used as a jail of important state criminals. Since the revolutionary performance first in Russia against autocracy — revolts of Decembrists ­(1825) the government has definitively transformed a fortress into political prison in which torture chambers the best representatives of three generations of Russian revolutionaries have visited many.

in the Trubetsky bastion the so-called confidential — prison remains as a museum — the terrible torture chamber of tsarism there is no time. Through this prison — built in 18701872, has passed more 2000 prisoners. Among them there was A. M.Gorky, brother V.I.Lenin Alexander Ulyanov, pupils — and V.I.Lenin`s colleagues, in particular D.C. Bauman, and many other things.

it is more than for two-centuries history of a fortress it was not necessary to defend — from the external enemy. Only in October 1917 For the first time its artillery rattled, supporting to participants of storm Winter palace ­. The Peter and Paul Fortress became a unique monument of the Great October socialist revolution.

in the Peter and Paul Fortress the Museum of history of Petersburg takes place. A number of its buildings (the cathedral and a tomb, ober-Commandant`s and engineering — houses, Zotov a bastion) are used for the museum purposes. The mint carries out the initial functions.

fortifications — bastions, curtains, walls of ravelins represent perfectly remained fortification elements — of a unique fortress in Soviet Union which architecture brightly characterises system of defence of the end XVII-has begun XVIII centuries­.

constructions within fortifications make an original architectural ensemble. It was generated along avenue which has arisen — on a channel place, there is no time crossing island from the east on the West­. In a fortress there were two areas: before the Ober-Commandant`s house and a guardroom and before the western facade of a cathedral and the Mint­.

ensemble a structure in a fortress is a huge exposition of a city architecture for two centuries. In a fortress unique monuments of architecture of first third of XVIII-th century, carefully restored in 19501960 th



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