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St.-Petersburg is based in 1703 to year.

coast of the Neva delta from of old were a part of the earths of Great Novgorod. Neva — one of sites of an ancient waterway «from the Varangian in Greeks». In the beginning of a XVII-th century the coast — of gulf of Finland and the Neva coast have been grasped by Swedes who have based on a place of an old Russian fortress of Kantsy on coast Neva, at a mouth of the river of Okhta, a fortress Nienschanz. Prior to the beginning of a XVIII-th century Russia has been deprived a free outlet to the sea.

resolute military operations for the purpose of returning of primordially Russian earths on coast Neva, for an exit to Baltic sea were undertaken — by Peter I. After a capture storm of a fortress Nienschanz and exiles of the Swedish military garrison on May, 27th (on May, 16th on old style) 1703 year on the Zayachiy (hare) island, are closer to a mouth Neva, Peter I has based St.-Petersburg fortress. It was birthday of Russian city St.-Petersburg which more than 200 years were capital of Russia.

Bookmark of a fortress St.-Petersburg Peter I, 1703
Bookmark fortresses St.-Petersburg Peter I, 1703 year.

Petersburg from the very beginning developed as the major economic­, political and cultural centre of the huge country. In it — all governmental bodies took place­. From first years of existence of a city — at first on the Petrogradsky side (at the present — area of Revolution), then on east extremity of Vasilevsky — island — at an arrow and, at last, the port developed ­­ in a mouth Neva. In Petersburg in a XVIII-th century have been based Academy of Sciences and Academy of Arts, the network of higher educational institutions developed.

St.-Petersburg. Neva and Academy of Sciences. G.A.Kachalov`s engraving on M.I.Mahaeva`s drawings. 1753, Academy of Arts, Catherine II, culture and art, science and education, Catherine II Board
St.-Petersburg. Neva and Academy of Sciences. G.A.Kachalov`s engraving on M.I.Mahaeva`s drawings. 1753

in capital all best creative power of Russia has found application. Necessity of representative shape of capital of the biggest for the state world has predetermined special value of its architecture. Petersburg became a grandiose building site. Outstanding architects participated in city building. Preparation of domestic architects has begun with a XVIII-th century in Petersburg: with 1750 th years in walls ­Academies of Arts (nowadays Institute of painting, a sculpture and architecture it. And. E. Repin), and from the XIX-th century middle — and at Institute of civil engineers (nowadays construction institute).

Petersburg — the first city in Russia which almost from the basis — began to develop on a prefabricated plan (the foreground of Petersburg is dated 1716 year). It has to a certain extent defined high town-planning level and promoted formation of extensive city ensembles that was especially characteristic for the end XVIII and first third XIX centuries.

transformation Petersburg in the largest industrial centre in a XIX-th century has led to that the city has been captured by a belt of the industrial enterprises of a various profile. Inhabited quarters of a city have appeared — cut off from the sea. To the beginning of the XX-th century for a city opposition of the magnificent centre with majestic architectural ensembles, set of private residences of the nobility and the arranged well profitable apartment houses occupied by bourgeoisie and different by intelligency­, to industrial suburbs with spontaneous, mainly wooden building of working dwellings is characteristic­. The class differentiation of the population of capital has amplified.

in development of a city architecture to 1917 year it is possible to reveal — some stages of its formation distinctly­.

in first third of XVIII-th century when on coast ­Neva intensive building on uninhabited places was carried out, because of a lack of domestic architects Peter I has been compelled to invite architects from abroad. In Petersburg large architects of different nationalities — the Swiss as Domeniko Trezini, Italians — of Gaetano Kiaveri and Mario of the Fountain, Frenchman Jean Batist Leblon, German Johann Shljuter, outstanding Dutch builder Van More and a number of others side by side worked­. Along with them Russian architects — M.G.Zemtsov, I.K.Korobov, T.N.Usov, outstanding town-planner P.M.Eropkin — the main founder of the first practicable plan of building of a city (1737) worked also The building which have become by a basis — throughout almost all XVIII-th century. That without dependence — from an origin of architects of first third of XVIII-th century their creativity in Petersburg ­ has received the general original lines is characteristic­­. It allows to speak about architectural style of the Petrovsky period, different a regularity and imposing appearance at relative restraint of decorative furniture. The stylistic generality of creativity of architects can be explained resoluteness of requirements from the side Peter I and its associates actively participating — in the decision of the major architecturally-building questions, and the main thing — specific conditions of building of a city: haste and utilitarian character of building; shortage of building materials (in particular stone), technical possibilities and natural features of district.

creative role of huge — weight of peasants-umeltsev and handicraftsmen which, carrying out plans of architects should affect character of the Petersburg architecture­, brought in created products the traditional elements developed within centuries. Abundantly clear that in architecture of the buildings created already in the first decades of a city building, the national feature of Russian architecture consisting in aggregate of lines was showed: силуэтности buildings, polychromies, plasticity, dimensions and organic communication with a natural environment. It such characteristic products of that time, as confirm Kunstkamera, a building of Twelve boards, Peter and Paul cathedral and many other things. The art orientation of Russian architecture of a XVII-th century has found in architecture of first third of XVIII-th century, characteristic strongly pronounced decorative effect some reflexion. Therefore architecture Petersburg that time conditionally name baroque of first third of XVIII-th century.

building principle not in depth of sites, and facades on a red line of streets that raised requirements to architecture of facades of buildings has been widely widespread.

with a view of building regulation some variants of facades of the apartment houses developed by the architect Domeniko Trezini were accepted. This principle of mass inhabited building on «exemplary facades» remained in Petersburg throughout only XVIII and first half XIX centuries. In second half of XVIII-th century exemplary facades have been developed by architect A. V.Kvasovym, in the XIX-th century beginning — V.I.Geste, L. And. Ruska and V.P.Stasov.

In the middle of a XVIII-th century Petersburg began to develop even more intensively. In a city the grandiose imperial residence — Winter palace, many large private residences and temples is erected. Lines of the underlined decorative effect are given to their architecture. The decorative sculpture sating magnificent facades and smart premises is harmoniously combined with diverse architectural forms. Architects F.-B.Rastrelli and S.I.Chevakinsky in Petersburg are the basic representatives of original style of Russian baroque of the middle of a XVIII-th century which would not be possible without remarkable art of Russian rockshaper, not to mention sculptors and painters-sculptors of monuments.

Best examples of Baroque style of the middle of a XVIII-th century in Petersburg are products RastrelliSmolny a monastery, Winter, Stroganovsky and Vorontsovsky palaces; ChevakinskyNikolsky a cathedral.

Nikolsky Naval Cathedral, a photolithography of 1890th years, Nikolo-Bogojavlensky Naval Cathedral
Nikolo-Bogojavlensky Naval Cathedral, a photolithography of 1890th years.

in 1760 th years in architecture there are changes. Baroque style is forced out by classicism. Its development in Russia was predetermined by economic, ideological and political preconditions. Wide scope of universal building of manorial estates in Russia from the middle of a XVIII-th century demanded economic both simple under forms and execution of the architecture accessible to realisation in any place of the huge country even by homebrew masters-serfs. The hobby of the advanced layers of nobility for ideas of enlightenment has led to absolutism condemnation Elizabeths Petrovny Baroque style embodied in imperial palaces and temples was which original embodiment. Now this style was exposed to negation, and searches of a new direction in architecture went in a channel all european the hobby for the antiquity connected with opening for a long time of lost ancient cities of Roman empire — Pompey and Herculaneum. Clear, simple, rational and at the same time majestic and expressive in art sense the architecture of a classical antiquity (Rome and Greece) seemed the best embodiment of architectural ideals and in Russia of second half of XVIII-th century.

graduates based in 1757 to year Academies of Arts have acquired the right to a trip abroad for the state account. They directly got acquainted with antique architecture, architecture of Renaissance in Italy and samples of the classicism which has already affirmed as France. Such ball, for example, the ingenious architect V.I.Bazhenov, made the creativity huge impact on contemporaries.

From abroad, in turn, comes to work to Russia a number of architects — followers of an aesthetics of classicism. Among them — Jean Batist Vallen-Delamot, Antonio Rinaldi, Charles Kameron and Dzhakomo Kvarengi. The activity they have strengthened positions of classicism which with 1760 to 1830 has undergone th years three stages of development in Russia: early classicism — style of a transition period, in which else baroque elements remained; in the end of a XVIII-th century — strict classicism — consecutive use of classical forms in the pure state and from the XIX-th century beginning — high classicism, in perfection developed problems of ensemble and synthesis of plastic arts.

with 1830 th years style endures sunset and gradually loses the best lines.

Best examples of constructions in style of classicism in Petersburg are: Botnyj the house in Peter and Paul Fortress, the Marble palace and a building of Academy of Arts (early classicism); the Tavrichesky palace, buildings of Assignatsionnogo of bank, Academies of Sciences, Smolny institute (strict classicism). High classicism was most brightly showed. In this style unique buildings are constructed: Main Admiralty, Stock exchange, Kazan cathedral and College of mines, barracks of the Pavlovsk regiment, Court stables, Narva and Moscow gate, General staff, Mihajlovsky palace, Aleksandrinsky theatre. For high classicism formation of the city ensembles forming parts of a city is characteristic. Are that and hitherto existing areas of Arts, Senatorial (Decembrists) and Pushkin, Ostrovsky`s area and street of Architect Rossi.

Aleksandrinsky theatre on a post card till 1917.
Aleksandrinsky theatre on a post card till 1917.

architecture development Petersburg went to a classicism epoch under the direction of the centralised organisations which were engaged in consideration of projects of a lay-out and city building. In second half of XVIII-th century it there was «a Commission about a stone structure of St.-Petersburg and Moscow» (17621796) in which the predominating role was played consistently by architects A. V.Kvasov, I.E.Starov and I.Lem. In 1760 th years general layouts of the basic parts of a city have been developed. It is fixed in the summary engraved plan Petersburg 1776 year with instructions on it of a design lay-out. After the activity termination «the Commissions about a stone structure» within 20 years the management of building has been dispersed in the several — organisations — «Committee of city structures","Committee of construction of barracks», etc.

Immediately after Patriotic war 1812 year the uniform body of a management by development of capital for the purpose of its transformation into an exemplary city with majestic building, sumptuous has been again createdми the areas and avenuees. It was «the Committee for reduction in the best device — of all structures and hydraulic works in St.-Petersburg and to this places» (18161842). It was headed by the largest — architects K.I.Rossi, V.P.Stasov, A.A.Mihajlov and skilled engineers A.A.Betankur, P.P.Bazen and A.D.Gotman. To committee was made to develop all planning actions for a lining of streets, quays and to the device of the areas. It should define places for public and industrial constructions, and also consider projects of all without an exception of buildings and structures. During a time of activity of Committee of structures and hydraulic works the glorified architectural ensembles of a city have been created.

View from Palace Square on Admiralty. Gouache of I.-century — of Bart. 1810, Palace Square, K.I.Rossi, Alexander`s Board I
View from Palace Square on Admiralty. Gouache of I.-century — of Bart. 1810 (before reorganisation Palace Square process stylization and eclectic use of various historical styles went Charles Rossi)

In the middle of a XIX-th century in architecture under the influence of formed bourgeois ideology. The constructions reminding those architecture of French or the Italian Renaissance, Romance, Gothic, Byzantian, Old Russian and even Mauritian character were created.

At this time the city has taken a way of capitalist development. Private residences of merchants and industrialists, a great number of profitable many-storeyed houses of the most various kind were under construction, there were such new types of constructions as banks, firm trading buildings, passages, railway stations, industrial constructions, etc.

Characteristic for the middle and second half of XIX-th century can serve products A.I.Shtakenshnejdera (Mariinsky, Mihajlovsky and Kseniinsky palaces), N.E.Yefimov (symmetric ministerial buildings on Isaakievsky square), A. Bryullov (Peter`s Lutheran church on Nevsky prospect), K.A.Tona (the Moscow station), V.A.Shretera (the Opera and ballet theatre building), A.I.Gauguin (the Suvorovsky museum), etc.

Mariinsky palace. V.S.Sadovnikov, 1847
Mariinsky palace. V.S.Sadovnikov, 1847

In architecture new technical achievements are more and more used: ferro-concrete, metal and large-format glass take root. In the end of XIX — the XX-th century beginning in architecture the style which has received the name «modernist style», different is formed by original art signs. Examples of this architectural direction — are firm trading buildings: Eliseyev`s merchant (nowadays shop-epicure «Central» and Comedy theatre; G.V.Baranovsky­), a building of the company Singer (now the book House; P.Ju.Sjuzor); Tsarskoje Selo (nowadays Vitebsk) station (S.A.Brzhzovsky and S.I.Minash), numerous profitable houses and private residences. In a counterbalance to this current which was not defending national expressiveness of architecture, a number of architects erects buildings in which revives receptions of Russian classicism and the Italian Renaissance. This current which has received the name «neoclassicism», is presented by many examples: the trading house of Mertensa (the Neva avenue, д. 21; M.S.Ljalevich); profitable houses on Kirovsk (д. 63-65; V.A.ShChuko) and big avenuees (д. 75; A.E.Belogrud); Private residences of Polovtseva on Stone island and Abamelek-Lazareva on quay of the Moyka (I.A.Fomin), etc.

Petersburg, renamed in 1914 to year in Petrograd, in 1917 became to year a place solving — for destinies of the world of the events which have come to the end with a victory of the October socialist revolution. City history has begun new readout of time with this boundary.

in the very first years after revolutionary fulfilments when just born Soviet republic first in the history of mankind should eliminate war and ruin consequences to begin new building was not neither means, nor forces. Nevertheless already then, in 1919 to year, in Petrograd the organisations first architecturally-planirovochnye — Council and the Workshop about settlement of city map and its suburbs have been created. After many decades of chaotic capitalist building there has been begun working out of projects and offers of the future systematic development of Petrograd. This work had joined all large Petrograd architects, with pleasure met October revolution, — D. P.Buryshkin, A.I.Gegello, V.G.Gelfrejh, L.A.Ilyin, A.S.Nikolsky, A.A.Ol, L. V.Rudnev, I.A.Fomin, made then glory of the Soviet architecture. And though dreams of architects of work palaces, of the houses-communes, new inhabited quarters, sports small towns and indicative working settlements also could not be carried out during this period, bases then have been put and ways of the Soviet town-planning were outlined. They have been developed and embodied in the latest town-planning practice.

city transformation has begun with 1925 year. The basic forces and means have been turned on liquidating contrast between the centre and working suburbs. Behind the Narva, Neva, Moscow outposts, on the Vyborg side building construction and the public buildings which essence is generated by a new social system is developed. It were recreation centres and clubs, catering establishments, and later — Houses of Councils. The architecture of this period differs — original expressiveness, extreme simplicity and «the constructivism» which sense consists in revealing of a constructive basis of buildings according to their functional purpose is usually characterised by concept.

SHiroky these works have accepted scope from the beginning 1930 th years when the side and the government have addressed to the side both trade-union organisations — of Leningrad and all worker with an appeal to transform Leningrad — into an exemplary socialist city. After that the reference published in December 1931 year, at the Leningrad city council the department led by architects L.A.Ilinym and A.F.Sharovym has been created large architecturally-planirovochnyj. Before department there was a problem of the prompt working out planning tasks for socialist reconstruction of Leningrad.

V these years the Leningrad architects, without having still a uniform creative — platform, search for ways of development of the Soviet architecture. The constructivist — architecture gives way to searches of style which would answer a principle «national under the form and socialist under the maintenance». Association of architects in the uniform creative union of the Soviet architects (1932) promoted creative studying and use — of architectural heritage so rich in Leningrad. In the Soviet — architecture receptions and forms from an arsenal — of classical architecture, first of all Russian make the way in life­. Churches are in parallel destroyed, blow up, understand on fire wood, laboratories, pools, cinemas will be reorientated in warehouses. A companion Kirov seriously suggested to blow up Peter and Paul Fortress — to make on the Zayachiy (hare) island stadium, to smooth out Palace quay. In premilitary years elements of the classical warrant to some extent paraphrased, sometimes the simplified are even more often used.

architects A.A.Ol, B.R.Rubanenko, N.A.Trotsky herein work. Only small group of architects of the Soviet formation — A.S.Nikolsky, E.A.Levinson and I.I.Fomin continue to search for innovative receptions, considering special characteristics of widely applied ferro-concrete. A.S.Nikolsky, since the first products (school of the 10 anniversary of October, a round bath in Wood) and finishing stadium of Kirov on Krestovsky island, always differed a sharpness of searches of the new. E.A.Levinson and I.I.Fomin in creative commonwealth was created by a number of interesting buildings and complexes.

to the middle 1930 th years long work of group of the Leningrad town-planners led by L.A.Ilinym, V.A.Vitmanom and L. M.Tversky over the general layout of a development of the city has been finished. In 1935 to year last variant of the plan developed on the basis of starting installations, confirmed Central Committees VKP has been created (and СНК the USSR in August 1935 Has begun a new stage in a development of the city, defined the state planned system of building and working out ensemble a principle of building of inhabited files.

a vivid example of use of this principle — the ensemble of apartment houses created in pre-war time in the Ivanovo street and Volodarsky`s there and then located building (nowadays Neva) regional council (E.A.Levinson, I.I.Fomin, etc.) .

General layout provided expansion of complex building in areas of the former suburbs. Extensive building has been interrupted by treacherous attack of fascist Germany to the USSR in 1941 to year.

in the first months of war in Leningrad have disguised some buildings and have covered bags with sand and wooden cases the most valuable monuments, first of all the well-known monuments to V.I.Lenin at Finnish — station and Peter I «Bronze Horseman ­». The part of sculptures has been hidden in the earth (for example, horses with Anichkovsky bridge). However by the end of war Leningrad and its suburbs have appeared covered with wounds and mutilated. Practically in a city does not remain any building and the construction which to some extent have done not suffer from bombardments, bombardments and abnormal operation without heating, a glass cover, with the damaged or broken roofs.

as a result of artillery bombardments, bombardments from air and fires has failed more than five millions square metres of a floor space. It has been in full or in part destroyed and burnt — over 3000 apartment houses, about four hundred schools, hundred industrial enterprises. Has strongly suffered about two hundred istoriko-architectural monuments. The considerable part of a city lay in ruins.

Engelgardt`s house (the Nevsky prospect, the house 30), destroyed by aerial bomb hit. 1941, air raids, Blockade, Second World War
Engelgardt`s House (Nevsky prospect, the house 30), destroyed by aerial bomb hit. 1941 year.

even in days of blockade at incessant bombardment measures were taken for maintenance of partially damaged most valuable buildings. After lifting of a blockade works on elimination of separate destructions, and then and on city restoration as a whole were developed. One of the most amazing facts of not dying away creative life in Leningrad was what even in the conditions of blockade ideas of restoration of a city already ripened. Architects set as the purpose not only to restore all that has been destroyed, but also to eliminate the architecture and lay-out distortions which have appeared in prerevolutionary years. The union of architects has held in Leningrad competitions on projects of reconstruction of the damaged parts of a city, in particular Suvorovsky and Moscow avenuees, on the project of creation of a green file in city centre on the basis of park of Lenin, Mytninsky quay and Petrovsky island.

during blockade the preliminary plan of post-war restoration of Leningrad (N. V.Baranov, V.A.Kamensky, A.I.Naumov) has been developed. All these reasons, in particular, have facilitated to the State — committee of defence on March, 29th 1944 year, in two months after clearings of a city of enemy blockade, to make the decision «On prime actions for restoration of the industry and municipal economy of Leningrad». The decision was the beginning of systematic expansion of architecturally-building — activity in a city and suburbs.

poster: We have defended Leningrad. We will restore it!
Poster: We have defended Leningrad. We will restore it!

in the first post-war fifth anniversary in Leningrad it was developed as restoration of the destroyed available housing, industrial and public — buildings, restoration of monuments of architecture, and new building construction, at first in the form of two-three-storyed inhabited formations in peripheral disctricts of the city (on the Belevsky field and Shchemilovke, on the Big Okhta, the avenue of Engels, in areas Volkovoj and New villages).

Aspiration to embody in post-war constructions pathos of a victory in the Great Patriotic War has predetermined their underlined monumentalism — and the reference as then it seemed, to the most expressive — from this point of view to heroic style of the past — to Russian — classicism or the antique classics. This tendency — was shown further — prior to the beginning 1950 th years. Examples of it are a public building on the area Rastrelli (A.I.Knyazev), an apartment house on the area of the World (M.Ja.Klimentov), multicolumned buildings of Lenproekta and the next apartment house on the Revolution area (O.I.Gurjev, Ja.N.Lukin­, A. P.ShCherbenok), and also stations of underground of the first stage. Building was conducted for the present in a direction of the further realisation — of the general layout developed before war. However soon became requirements clear its discrepancy and the possibilities which have developed — in new conditions. Therefore already in 1948 to year working out under the direction of N. V.Baranova and A.I.Naumov`s architects — of the new general layout has come to the end­. As before, the plan provided preservation of historically developed kernel of the city stretched round the widest part of water area Neva — in limits from the Foundry — bridge to bridge of lieutenant Schmidt, and city expansion was provided now in regular intervals both on the south, and on the southeast, and on the north. There was a task in view of disclosing of a city to the sea and formations of a resort zone on Karelian isthmus.

in 1951 to year the general layout has been modified. Important re-construct works have concerned Nevsky prospect, area Finnish — station before which the area named a name of Century And has been opened on Neva. Lenin, areas Senna of the area named the — area of the World, the area of Revolution at Kirov bridge and so forth formation of highways in a southern part of a city Proceeded and creation of avenuees in northern part has begun. Now the housing estate — covered already whole areas. The lay-out and building of each — of areas were carried out by architectural workshops under an author`s management of skilled architects A.K.Barutcheva, V.A.Kamensky, E.A.Levinsona, A.S.Nikolsky, A.A.Olja and others.

among the largest town-planning undertakings which have been carried out after the end of war, it is necessary to name creation of the first stage — of underground and a bookmark of two grandiose parks of the Victory — Moscow and Seaside with huge stadium of S. M.Kirova almost on 100 000 persons. Its building, as well as underground building, has begun even before war. In premilitary years in Leningrad the beginning крупноблочному was necessary to building (S. V.Vasilkovsky). Development of industrialisation of building has occurred in 1950 th years when erection of houses has begun under standard projects on an industrial — basis.

in the middle 1950 th years the partijno-governmental decisions concerning typification and to building industrialisation, elimination of excesses in designing and building have been made. The main attention has been turned on housing construction development. In Leningrad there were problems in the shortest term to pass on hi-industry methods of erection of buildings; thus the main attention was given to economy of building and creation of conveniences to the population. 0 communications with it were necessary to change practice of designing in a root and to develop the standard projects considering new technological — possibilities of factories. Without it it was impossible to carry out the grandiose housing development programme.

after publication in August 1955 decisions «About measures on the further industrialisation, improvement of quality and building depreciation» in Leningrad the uniform powerful organisation — Glavleningradstroj who has taken up an overwhelming part of volume of housing, cultural and household building has been created, and designing has concentrated basically at institute Flax-project.

serious corrective amendments have been brought in the general layout of development of Leningrad (V.A.Kamensky, A.I.Naumov, I.I.Fomin). Housing construction began to be developed in the form of large areas in free — territories. It has been recognised by necessary to intensify settling of suburbs of Leningrad, considering them as cities-companions­.

In the beginning 1950 th years in Leningrad the — idea of factory manufacturing of all elements of buildings and transformation of a building site into a place of their installation for the first time has been carried out — in the mechanised way­. There was absolutely new type of the building enterprise — house-building industrial complex which makes all designs and details of buildings and forces of the masters mounts houses on a place, preparing them for settling.

thanks to a progressive method dwelling cost has decreased almost twice, and speed of manufacturing of apartment houses has increased — several times. If in the first years after war annually in Leningrad 300-400 sq. m of a floor space soon this indicator has exceeded 1 million sq. were erected and to 1970 to year has reached 1,7 million in sq. m.

extremely simple, with flat facades and roofs the architecture of the apartment houses produced by house-building industrial complexes, can be named technicality in architecture».

After updating of the general layout of a city in 1959 to year have been developed the seven-year plan (on 19591965) And technical and economic bases of the general layout of development of Leningrad on longer prospect (V.A.Kamensky, A.I.Naumov).

Monotonous character of building, characteristic for the first years of industrial housing construction when only five-floor apartment houses put by parallel numbers were erected, began to be overcome — by means of use of a free picturesque lay-out, a combination of five- and nine-floor houses of several types (with balconies or loggias, with variously solved inputs), the various invoice and colouring of walls. The accepted system of the organisation of cultural and community service of the population in microdistricts and large new residential areas should provide to the population desirable conveniences.

municipal transportation development, including underground, building of the bridge of Alexander Nevsky through Neva has improved communications of new peripheral areas with the centre and with each other.

For post-war years the territory of Leningrad has grown more than twice. In a city it is built more than 20 million in sq. m of a floor space, hundred schools, child care centres, a number of hospitals, public buildings.

successful realisation of the seven-year plan, existence of the centralised architecturally-building organisations of a city — Main architecturally-planirovochnogo managements, design organisations Lenproekt and with 1963 year — LenZNIIEP (the Leningrad zone scientific research institute of typical and experimental designing), the largest building organisation

Glavleningradstroj with the house-building industrial complexes guaranteeing systematic performance of all building problems, — promoted — working out of a long-term plan of development of Leningrad for 25 years. This town-planning document created by collective Architecturally-planirovochnogo of management led by architects V.A.Kamensky and A.I.Naumov, is confirmed by the government in 1966 to year.

under this general layout of development of Leningrad the grandiose town-planning plan of an exit of a city to the sea will be carried out, which essence consists in placing building on coast of gulf of Finland from area Strelny in the south to Holguin in the north, to create architecturally issued «a horseshoe» coast in the extent more than 30 km. As a result of these works which have already started to be carried out­, the current situation at which the seaside city has been cut actually off from the sea will be historically liquidated. During the decision — of this problem it is required to drain considerable boggy sites of delta Neva. Inhabitants Petersburg will get wide access directly to gulf open spaces, to seaside quays, parks. Such park, in particular, is the memorial park of a name of V.I.Lenin, put in 1960 to the year which first stage has been dated for the 100 anniversary from the date of a birth of the great leader.

general layout provides a uniform development of the city in all directions. Its territory will double, and the available housing will reach almost 53 million in sq. m (to 1917 in Petrograd was only 13,5 million in sq. m of dwellings).

Under the general layout security zones round monuments of architecture and a zone of regulation of building are created. Now in Petersburg are taken under the state protection of hundred monuments of the architecture which have entered into life of a city.

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